Centrifugal Pump Working Principle

Centrifugal pump is one kind of the dynamic pump type. This pump is pushing the fluid in a perpendicular direction to the impeller shaft/axis. Different from the axial pump which the fluid output direction is parallel to the axis of the impeller.

Centrifugal pump is composed of an impeller with inlet channel right in the middle. Centrifugal pump impeller have different design with axial pump impeller. Centrifugal pump impeller will create a centrifugal force to push the fluid from the center of the pump (inlet) to the outside of impeller. So, when the impeller rotates by mechanical energy generated by the driving source, fluid flows from the inlet to the outer side of the impeller ahead to the pump casing.



One elementary part of centrifugal pump other than impeller is the pump casing. Centrifugal pump casing have unique design like a snail shell. This snail-shell-shape have function to decreases the fluid flow velocity while impeller rotation speed remains high. The fluid velocity is converted into pressure by this casing so that the fluid can reach its outlet point.

Centrifugal pump has some advantages include smooth operation in pumps, uniform pressure at pump discharge, low cost, and can work at high speeds so that further applications can be connected directly with steam turbines, electric motors, or other driving source. The use of centrifugal pumps in the world reaches 80% because of its suitable use to cope with large amounts of fluid than positive-displacement pumps.