Types of Car Transmission (Part 1)

The transmission system function is to transmit the speed, power and torque of the driving machine to an axle driven, with a certain ratio / transmission ratio. The rotary power generated by the driving machine always has an optimum torque value at a given RPM, while the load conditions faced by the machine tend to vary. We will get the optimum efficiency of the driving machine if it can always work on its optimum RPM, and to overcome the existing load variations then we use a transmission system that we can vary the transmission ratio.



But if on an existing load drive system is constant, then the transmission system used is a fixed transmission system. This means that this system transmits the engine rotation to the shaft driven with a fixed ratio. This fixed transmission system will not be discussed in this article. What we will discuss is the motor vehicle transmission system which of course we can vary the transmission ratio (read: acceleration). And here are the various transmission systems:

Manual Gearbox Transmission

As the name implies, this gearbox transmission uses a series of gears that are arranged in such a way that it can transmit engine speed at various acceleration ratios. A variety of manual gearbox designs for motorcycles and cars have been developed. There are 4-acceleration, 5-speed, 6-speed, and more. The acceleration of the manual gearbox transmission is done by the driver of the vehicle manually.

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Manual Gearbox Transmission

Manual gearbox transmission has the selected selection of selected acceleration ratio by way of “locking” the gear position on the output shaft. At the time of transfer ratio from position of gear one to another, required another component that is clutch that take off while rotation of engine to drive shaft.


Working Principles of Gearbox Transmission

Manual transmission gearbox system is still divided into several types based on the principle of work. These include:

  1. Sequential Gearbox Transmission . The displacement speed ratio of sequential transmission systems occurs sequentially. This system is adapted by motorcycles. On a 4-speed motorcycle for example, the displacement ratio should always be sequential from N-1-2-3- and 4. From position 1 can not jump to position 3, from 4 can not jump to position 2.


    Manual Transmission



    Motorcycle gear lever works with a unidirectional gear system, which converts the movement of the forward and backward push into a rotating motion. The rotary moves a selector barrel with three or four levers mounted around the barrel. The barrel levers move based on the rotating position of the barrel. This lever that drives the gear position so that the rotation is obtained out of the desired shaft.

  2. Non-Sequential Gearbox Transmission . This type of transmission allows us to move the position of the gears randomly or not in sequence. This system is commonly adopted by cars, trucks, and other vehicles. This system allows us to select the position of the second straight tooth without having to pass the position of the teeth 1.


    Non-Sequential Gearbox Transmission Animation

  3. Non-synchronized Gearbox Transmission . The design of the gearbox transmission system was first introduced by Louis-René Panhard and Emile Levassor at the end of the 19th century. They have developed a gearbox transmission system with multiple multi-ratio gears. Tooth shifting must be done when the driving speed of the driving gear is equal to the speed of the driven gear spin. This is done by way of adjusting the pressure of the acceleration pedal engine (pedal gas) to get the right RPM when shifting the tooth. If RPM is incorrect, the gear will not be engage in the desired position.Although the current motor vehicle is commonly using a synchronized transmission system, the non-synchronized is still widely used. This system is commonly used in large truck engines, motorcycle racing, and also race cars. The absence of a synchronized transmission system in racing vehicles is due to a clutch system that is more susceptible to wear than the existing gears. Another reason is that mechanically the design of non-synchronized transmission is more reliable and cheaper. In addition, inter-tooth transfer in non-synchronized systems is faster than the synchronized system, which is an important point in every motorcycle or car racing.
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  5. Synchronized Gearbox Transmission. A synchronized gearbox consists of two main axes, both of which have gears that meet each other, so the driving gear always moves the gear driven. But the actuated gear can rotate freely, or locked with its axis so that the shaft rotates. The gear lock system governs which gear to be used in accordance with the shifter levers that govern it. In this system used a clutch system that can adjust the rotation of the shaft, so that when the gear shift can run smooth.
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  7. Pre-Selector Gearbox Transmission . As the name implies, the driver of the vehicle with the pre-selector transmission system determines the gear ratio to be used before the gearshift process in the gearbox system occurs.

( Continued to next article )

Automatic transmission system Ebook:

  1. Ravigneaux Planetary Transmission
  2. Description Automatic Gearbox
  3. Basic Mechanical Power Transmission
  4. Mechanical Power Transmission Fundamentals