( Continued from previous articles. )
Types of Automatic Transmission Based on Technological Advancements
Innovations from various car manufacturers of the world have produced many highly sophisticated automatic transmission technology. The development of mechanical and electrical automatic control systems makes motor vehicle designers competing to produce a fast and precise transmission system during gearshift, reduced torque losses on converter torque usage, and more efficient transmission systems to power the engine to each driving wheel. Thus came the following technologies of automatic transmission systems:
- Manumatic Transmission
Manumatic comes from manual and automatic. Manumatic transmission means a transmission system which is automated, but the driver can choose the option to manually move the transmission. But here the rider is not fully manually switching his transmission ratio, because there is no clutch pedal. The rider simply chooses the sign (+) to raise the ratio or the sign (-) to decrease the ratio and the displacement of the tooth ratio occurs sequentially. All engine transmissions are still automatically performed by the automatic transmission system.
Manumatic Mazda CX-7 Transmission Handle
Almost every car manufacturer has its own brand for its manumatic transmission system, such as Sportronic (Alfa Romeo), TouchTronic (Aston Martin), Tiptronic (Audi), Steptronic (BMW), SelectShift (Ford), iShift (Honda), Bosch Mechatronic (Jaguar), Sportmatic (KIA), TouchShift (Mercedes-Benz), Protronic (Proton), Geartronic (Volvo), and so forth.
- Semi-Automatic Transmission
Semi-automatic transmission can not make full automatic transmission ratio transfers. The switching between ratios must be initiated by the rider. This transmission does not use the clutch pedal that must be pressed by the rider each want to move the transmission ratio, the rider simply shift the paddle or press the button normally located on the steering wheel.
This transmission uses electrical sensors, pneumatic systems, processors, and actuators to execute driver commands while moving the transmission ratio. This system eliminates the position of the clutch pedal in the car’s cockpit with an automated electronic system to actuate the clutch on the transmission system. This automated electronic system controls the clutch by reading the signal shaft rotation, torque signal, and the right time to get a fast and smooth gearshift.
Paddle Shift on Ferrari F430
Transmission systems do not use planetary gear transmissions, but have used gear wheels with parallel shafts as in manual transmissions. This design is better in forwarding the engine power to the wheels. In addition, with automatic gear coupling actuation system, got the process of gearshift very quickly. Ferrari F430 for example, switching between rations only takes 150 ms (milliseconds).
- Electrohydraulic Transmission .
The next technology is automatic transmission system called electrohidrolic system. The main feature of this system is the use of automatic computation control systems to regulate the hydraulic system in charge of clutching couplings on automatic transmissions. This system uses a variety of sensors to get a fast and efficient ratio transfer. Torque sensor, rotation speed sensor and shaft drive axle, as well as other sensors to replace the mechanical system used in conventional automatic transmission.
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- Dual-Clutch Transmission
The dual-clutch system is a transmission system that uses two sets of gears on a gear system. This system uses two clutches, one larger set as the odd gear, while the other smaller clutch adjusts the even gear. This system produces a much faster speed transfer ratio. In addition, this dual-clutch system eliminates the torque converter position with the clutch, so that automatic transmission is also used in the electrohydraulic automatic control system.
Dual-Clutch Transmission System Scheme
Animated Dual-Clutch Transmission System on Honda VFR1200F