Working Principle of Hydraulic System – We are certainly familiar with the above heavy equipment. A lot of heavy work using this equipment. This equipment is designed to conquer heavy loads raised, or for the purpose of digging. The system used as a “fork” driver is a hydraulic system. Hydraulic system is a system that uses liquid fluid power to do a simple job. The hydraulic system is an application of the use of Pascal’s Law.
Hydraulic machine, supply pressurized hydraulic fluid to a hydraulic motor or hydraulic cylinder to perform certain work. Hydraulic motors produce a rotating motion that can be used to rotate heavy loads such as pulleys, chains, etc. Hydraulic cylinders produce back and forth motions that are widely applied to heavy equipment, water gates (at dams for example), or also for large valves. Hydraulic fluid is controlled by flow control valve and passed through hydraulic tube.
The hydraulic system can be simply explained through the picture above. The first image shows that by using a hydraulic system, it takes a smaller (F) force to be able to lift a larger load.
F2 = F1 • (A2/A1)
While the second picture explains the principle of using a hydraulic motor on a pulley. And it takes a smaller torque to be able to rotate pulleys with a larger load (large torque).
Tmotor = Tmotor • (Vmotor/Vpompa)
A hydraulic system consists of hydraulic pumps, pipelines, control valves, hydraulic fluid tanks, filters, actuators (cylinders or hydraulic motors), and other devices as a complement.
The picture above illustrates a hydraulic system that works to drive hydraulic cylinder piston. The working fluid collected in the tank is pumped by a hydraulic pump so that it has specific pressures. Fluid flows to the solenoid valve, this valve regulates the movement of hydraulic cylinders. If the cylinder position lengthens (advance) then the solenoid valve will go to the left, so the fluid can push the piston forward. When the solenoid valve is directed to the right, the hydraulic cylinder will retract. At the time of movement in the cylinder, then there is some hydraulic fluid is wasted. This fluid returns to the tank through a special pipeline.
The system above is not much different from the hydraulic system that has a piston actuator. It’s just that here the actuator is a hydraulic motor for its use of torque (torque). The solenoid valve adjusts the direction of rotation of the hydraulic motor. Unlike the more complicated electric motors required to be able to rotate in both directions, hydraulic motors are easier to apply when needed to rotate in both directions.